I'm currently serving in the U.S. Army as a Brigade S6. In civilian terms, I am the individual responsible for all the communication requirements and planning for a military unit consisting of roughly 2,000 Soldiers. From my experience and accounts, the unit I'm a part of utilizes ALE HF almost 100% of the time while conducting training operations. Not surprisingly HF is at the bottom of the PACE plan (P: Primary, A: Alternate, C: Contingency, E: Emergency). It falls below Upper-TI (internet), FM, TACSAT (tactical satellite), and JCR (Joint Capabilities Release). From my observations, the current military radio operators have little knowledge of how it works or how HF is impacted by frequency, solar activity, antenna design, etc. Nevertheless, ALE is the de fecto method within the army to conduct HF operations.