At various times and on various websites, a well-known ham has claimed that the low-angle, v-pol radiation from a vertical monopole is not "contributing to global communication" (quote below): Quote from: WA---K on January 09, 2021 Furthermore, that well-known ham claims that the radiation efficiency of a vertical monopole is severely reduced by the effects of the conductivity/permittivity of the soil at, and near the site of that monopole antenna system. —— Below, using FCC data and methodology is a comparison of the 1-hop skip angle and received, nighttime field intensities at a great-circle path distance of ~895 miles from two AM broadcast stations. Both are 24/7, 50 kW, omnidirectional stations using very similar tower radiator, (v-pol) antenna systems. Notice in the graphic below that: The "takeoff angle" for 1-hop skip to reach the Earth ~895 miles downrange from each station is on the order of 2.45 degrees, and The "Received Field" of WSB at ~895 miles is greater than that of WGN at ~895 miles. ► Earth conductivity at/near the transmit site of WSB is about 1 mS/m (poor), compared to 8 mS/m (average) soil at/near the WGN site. ◄ These realities exist even though (according to the theses/posts of WA---K): Far-field radiation from a takeoff angle of ~2.45 degrees from a vertical monopole would not provide useful "global communication," and The nighttime Received Field of WSB at ~895 miles should be LESS than that of WGN at ~895 miles, due to the relatively lower Earth conductivity at/near the WSB transmitter site. However, and as shown in well-respected textbooks on antenna engineering by Kraus, Terman, Balanis, Laport etc, ALL vertical monopoles of 5/8WL and less vertical height radiate/launch their maximum relative field (E/Emax) in the horizontal plane, and not much less than that at low angles above the horizontal plane. Also notice in the graphic below that the h-plane field produced by WSB and WGN 1 km away from their radiator is comparable, at about 390 mV/m for 1 kW of applied power. It would be useful to his readers if this well-known ham considered the documentation above, before continuing to post his present beliefs on these topics as proven facts.