A lot of Nigerian / Egypt / North Africa scammers are working together - usually out of parts of Eastern Europe, UK and France and most commonly use yahoo.com email addresses as these seem to be the best / easiest to spoof accounts available online. I'd suggest taking a look at sites like 419eater.com for a quick overview of how their scams operate. The FBI has a very responsive site for scam reporting and generally they will call you within five minutes of emailing. (I have had to report many scams due to my line of work) - the IC3 and FBI sites here: http://www.fbi.gov/scams-safety/e-scams and http://www.ic3.gov/default.aspx The best advice is to check things like common spelling mistakes, ask the scammer for non metric measurements for things, ask for photos of items or photos of the scammer with the item. Often these things can be turned in as evidence later on. Unfortunately due to the very public nature of callsigns and ham radio, a lot of personal information is available to these folks for free. They will most commonly use ISPs and stolen cloud virtual private servers. Stolen email addresses. Common names that hide them by the abundance of other persons with these names. In defense of anyone on this site - I would suggest a few things. Paypal stops payment but even this is exploited to a sellers or buyers advantage. Many times they will wait for an item to be in transit and then file a complaint. The item or payment can arrive but you're tied up waiting for X or Y. Check out paypalsucks.com - there are phone numbers listed on that site and many times I have had to call paypal due to scammers on eBay and other online transaction sites. (So much so that I have given up using eBay as a seller anymore) Try to use email via local services or sites that use the captcha / re-captcha on login (the type of login that asks you to authenticate and check an image or letters and type them along with your login details.) These types of sites deter use by scammers as their scripts can't really be used to harvest accounts by randomly guessing passwords and trying to login multiple times. Make sure to get insurance or allow UPS / FedEx to pack your items - if a scammer does take advantage this can often be the one step that saves you from getting completely ripped off. Just like you keep a radio log - report the scammers info, IP address, and anything else to the forum, the FBI / IC3 / Local Authorities and sites like 419. Keep all emails exchanged, and messages via forum mail backed up. If at all possible try to get logs by asking for them from providers. Tools like whois and search engines are often useful as well - scammers often use the same text in emails and other patterns - compare portions of their suspected message to searches via google and other sites. http://www.whoishostingthis.com/blog/2009/04/30/gone-phishing/ Anything that pops up with AFRIKANET / AFRICANET in the whois info for relaying servers will almost always be a scammer. (.000000000001% chance they are not) Ask a friend to take a look when in doubt as well - something that seems too good to be true probably is!