Thank you for also taking time to explain this to me. I’m convinced now, that I really need to sit down at the bench and figure all of this out before attempting to proceed any further with the amplifier project. Is it safe to use a dvom to read the internal resistance of the meter movement? Or do I need to use an analog vom for this? When you say “without pinning the meter movement “ do you mean the movement of the meter I’m trying to measure or the vom? The meter Id like to use to measure plate current is scaled 0-1 amp but says nothing on it anywhere else.